Wrapping Up reflections

This is the final reflection and is my final blog for IFN612. In this reflection I am going to talk about my expectations of this unit, the learning environment, my personal choice of the most and the least interesting of weekly topics, and the key things I have learned from this unit.

My expectations


To be honest, in the beginning I was quite worried to take this unit because I am not a quick adopter of the new technologies. I’d love to learn but it takes time.

IFN612 unit content
Figure 1. Unit outline of IFN612 (Content)

When I refer to the unit online in QUT Virtual, especially from the content (see Figure 1), I thought that I would be overwhelmed with these kinds of technologies. I worried if I had to create an app with unfamiliar technologies or I had to use coding or programming. But my expectation was totally wrong. In reality this unit was really fun, engaging and helped me to know and play with various new technologies without feeling overwhelmed. This can be seen through the ‘fortnightly playing activities’. The lecturer offered several options and I could pick whichever one I liked to do by considering my capability of completing the task in question. If I later wanted to know more about completing other options, I could read and learn from my peers’ blogs.

Learning environment

i3-Iso Brochure (R3)-2

Instead of using Blackboard as a unit site, the teaching team created IFN612 unit site. On this site I also have to create my blog. I think it is an excellent medium to use as we can have all information related to the course in the one place. We can see who is online on the site, read peers’ blogs, give comment, see the new announcements, view what’s on Twitter (#ifn612), ask questions, communicate with peers and of course access learning materials. However, the unfriendly user interface of the blog and spam were annoying but again that’s technology, none of the technologies are perfect. But I can learn from this experience when I decide to use blog later on, either for my personal or professional purposes.

The mix of online activities and workshops was excellent as I can learn how the theories are linked to real world applications or vice versa. The use of various media sources for weekly learning materials was great as it helped students to not get bored with text-reading materials.

In regards to assessment, I would like to focus on the first assignment, creating a persona. I enjoyed do this assignment as I was not forced to use the imaging software, I could use the simple one that was Microsoft Power Point. I just realised that I can use Microsoft Power Point to create a poster. However, I felt awkward because I had to create a persona based on my experience. That’s why I found difficulties in creating information to put on the persona as a required. I think it might be better if students were provided a chance to conduct a real interview or focus group discussion to gather information about the users. The users could be our peers. Therefore we can get a real experience of creating a persona as well as conduct real data collection. Besides that, in reality, we have to interview our user in order to provide something based on their needs.

Weekly topics

3.weekly topics

I chose week 6 about openness as the most interesting topic as I learn more about open data, open education, open source and open access. The guest lecturer Ginny Barbour was awesome by delivering a beneficial lecture on open access. I know it is quite hard to encourage people in my organisation (university) to create an open access. But, I believe that by intensive communication we can create an open access for the research and publications in our university.

I found that open education was also a good topic. Free online courses such as MOOCs really give a beneficial and good chance for us to increase our skills on certain topics. However, I hope I could find more course topics of Information management or information science or information literacy on that list of course topics.

I also found that the play activities from week 6 were the most challenging. I wish I could have chosen Infographic as my play activity but I could not do it because I did not have much time available. However, I will learn how to do it later on. I can revisit the course materials in week 6 and find and find a video from Kate Davis about how to create Infographic. Further, I can read my peers blog (especially those who completed infographic play activities). Because, I believe that infographic is an effective tool for delivering information to be understandable by the people.

The least favourite topics was in week 4: Technology or internet is everywhere as in reality we know that actually the internet is not everywhere. Not all people have access to the internet due to lack of internet connection, or maybe not knowing how to use it. And, the discussion on why organisation must tracking their employee was just ridiculous and does not make sense for me. Because how the organisation just want to hire healthy people. I think it will give a huge gap on the people with high capability but not too healthy.

The most challenging topic was on week 10: Technology in practice. I found it challenging as I learned more about gamification and makerspace, two topics that totally were new for me. I chose the game option as I would like to challenge myself to play games and (to prove myself that game play is not always useless) and understand how games can be applied in an educational context. It was fun, competitive, and I felt under pressure for certain challenges but l learned that gamification is not only about collecting badges and points. It is more about how to design a game to deliver a beneficial outcome for the students and make them more engaged with the course. And I got a prize as I came second on the leader board.

Key learning

Learning is Hanging Out

The key learning for me in this unit is how as an information professional I can learn and understand a variety use of technologies and choose which one is appropriate to deliver a better information service. Additionally, I also have learnt that:

  • Blogging is one way to deliver and communicate your knowledge with other information professionals. Throughout this semester, I found that blogging was very useful for me to enrich my knowledge of certain topics as well as share my knowledge with others. Reading my peers’ blogs and comments have made me understand that everyone has different preference and experience in using technologies either for their personal or professional life. However, I realise that my weaknesses were I did not read the blog posts and provided comments frequently or in regular time. Unable to manage my time well was the main reason. But, I hope in the future, I can spend time (maybe one to two hours per day) to read a blog which relevant to my profession. Further, I Hope I can continue this good beneficial practice of blogging by starting blogging this June.
  • I have learnt how to use Microsoft Power Point to create a poster. I realise that sometimes I don’t have to use a complicated software to produce something like this.
  • I use Twitter frequently now to keep connected with other information professionals
  • I have also learnt how to conduct user research design by creating personas. Further, by doing assignment 3, I have learned how to propose an appropriate technology for an organisation to fulfil its needs as well as its users’ needs.
  • I also learnt my strengths are I always read all materials on learning resources and I always try to find out literature to help me back up my statement. I do acknowledge my weaknesses are I am not good at using imaging software, I tend to hinder use new tools in playing activities as I know I could not complete it due to bad time management.

In conclusion, I have completely enjoyed IFN612. The multitude of learning resources, and personal engagement with peers and the lecturer have helped me to understand the topics and exchange knowledge. I realise that as an information professional I could not escape from technologies. This unit has helped me to understand to control and choose what technologies are appropriate with my needs and my profession as well as the needs of my organisations. Thank you to our great lecturer team Kathleen and Katya for delivering this course in such a pleasurable way but still focusing on the unit’s outcome.

Image references (in order of appearances on blog post)

Expectations by Magenta Jefferson https://www.flickr.com/photos/magentadevinna/11611781756/

IFN612 unit online from https://www.qut.edu.au/study/structures/study-plan-data?unit-id=60192

i3-learning environment by  i3-Group Holding NV https://www.flickr.com/photos/vanerumgroup/14745088773/

The topic of the next weekly challenge is AGAIN by Crap Mariner https://www.flickr.com/photos/isfullofcrap/12719841605/

Learning is Hanging Out by Alan Levine https://www.flickr.com/photos/cogdog/15905754123/

Playing a game

As I know that I am not a game lover I want to challenge myself through ‘The Game 2016’ option for week 10’s play activity. Although in the beginning I felt worried and was afraid that I might fail in this play activity, I convinced myself that I can do it. As a result I came to second, yay…got the prize.

There were six challenges:

  1. A treasure hunt
  2. Picture this
  3. Under pressure
  4. Name that game (on Twitter)
  5. The Eurovision game contest
  6. Write a blog about forgotten memories

From those six challenges, the most challenging was ‘under pressure’. As I had to comment on five blog posts within 24 hours. Hmm, normally, I only give comment once per fortnightly. I love to read my friend blogs but a little bit passive in giving comments. But, I did it and I learned that sometimes we have to force or push ourself in doing something.

Besides the six challenges, I also collected the Easter eggs and of course the badges. To find where the Easter eggs are, I used the search tool on blog site. I typed ‘Easter egg’, and click search and finally found the six Easter eggs. I know, it might not an appropriate way but this was my strategy 🙂

‘The game 2016’ was really fun, enjoyable, and challenging. Overall, it is not about getting the highest point, collecting badges, and easter eggs, but I can challenge myself to play a game and learned how a game-based learning is designed and help me to engage with this course also exploring QUT Library website.

My Badges


Eurovision game contest submission
Submit blog comments earlier
Twitter Skills
Treasure Hunt 1
Treasure Hunt 2
Treasure Hunt 3
Easter egg 6
Easter egg 1
Easter Egg 4
Easter egg 4
Picture this


Easter egg 2


Easter Egg 5
Forgotten memories blog post


For this week reflection, I chose to dispute the statement that “Gamification is bulls**t.”

Gamification is “the use of game design elements in non-game contexts” (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, & Nacke, 2014) which aim to engage users and solve problems (Zicherman & Cunningham as cited in Kim, 2015). It can be said that the gamification using techniques from games to engage audiences (Boinodoris & Fingar, 2014).

Nowadays, Gamification is currently being applied to customer engagement, education, employee performance, health and wellness, sustainability, games for creating a better world, and library.

In educational context, gamification has applied to help students in their learning. Khan academy uses gamification to enhance the learning experience for students (Boinodoris & Fingar, 2014). Further, a study by Bottino, Ott, and Tavella (2015) concluded that gamification in a form of serious game has engaged the primary school student to play and solve problem in the game related to their school subject. This engagement has positive correlation with their (the students) school performance. Further, in the university context, games has engaged the students to make the learning more effective and fun as well as to helping students learn better (Western Sydney University). This infographic presented on how gamification can be applied in higher education context. Even, Macquire University has developed three kinds of game to help its students to be more engage and more understanding about issues in a core Philosophy unit.

Gamification is also utilised to improve the employee performance. According to a report by marketsandmarkets, “Incorporating gamification will help increase employee motivation level, customer loyalty and employee engagement”. Similarly, Dale (2014) on his paper, states that gamification has made the employee more motivated and engaged with their job. However, he argues that organisation must involve the employee in the design and implementation of gamification strategy in order to have the fully beneficial of gamification in organisation. (Dale, 2014).

In the health context, especially for health and wellness, Nike company has built Nike+ platform to engage its fitness enthusiasts to achieve a better level of wellness (Boinodoris & Fingar, 2014). Still in terms of health purpose, Jane McGonigal has creted ‘SuperBetter’ to help people “build up skills like social connectedness, having challenging mindset, or psychological fexibility” (Boinodoris & Fingar, 2014, P.108). Similarly, hope.org has created Re-Mission game to help the kids with cancer to overcome their treatment pain and help them understand the treatment process.

Gamification also popular in Library. Kyle (2014) on his article has provided examples of how gamification has used in library such as to engage the patron in looking for library materials. Further on his article he provided an explanation on how a library develop a successful game.

Last but not least, gamesforchange.org has created some games to “raise global awareness about global policy” (Boinodoris & Fingar, 2014, P.129). Games such as women’s right, the Syrian Civil War, and renewable energy has considered as serius games which focus on social issues, social injustice and social change.

Based on these facts about gamification, is gamification still a bulls**t? It is not about how the games provider making money by providing this game. But, beyond that the purpose and the outcome of the games are much more valuable than money.


Boinodiris, P., & Fingar, P. (2014). Serious games for business: Using gamification to fully engage customers, employess and partners. Tampa, Florida: Meghan-Kiffer Press.

Bottino, R. M., Ott, M., & Tavella, M. (2014). Serious gaming at school: Reflections on students’ performance, engagement and motivation. International Journal of Game – Based Learning, 4(1), 21. Retrieved from www.library.qut.edu.au

Dale, S. (2014). Gamification making work fun, or making fun of work?. Business Information Review, 31(2), 82-90. doi:10.1177/0266382114538350

Kim, B. (2015). Chapter 2: Gamification: Examples, definitions, and related concepts. Library Technology Reports, 51(2), 10. Retrieved from www.library.qut.edu.au

Kyle, F. (2014). Gamification in Libraries the state of the art. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 54(2), 19-23. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezp01.library.qut.edu.au/docview/1642547481?pq-origsite=summon


Forgotten Memories

Narcist @ QUT GP Campuss
Narcist @ QUT GP Campuss

No intention to be narcist, but I think this picture is the most appropriate for the theme of forgotten memories.  It was taken on 11th of June 2014. This picture always makes me smile as this is one of the biggest achievement in my life. Got scholarship to study In Australia especially in QUT is a dream come true. It does not mean that the quality of education at my home country is bad but I just want to find a study that really fulfil my needs and my passion, i.e. Information Management. Time flies….., and can’t believe that I almost finish my study. However, I realised that completing my study is not the end of my journey but it is just the beginning to make a real contribution for the society with my knowledge.

Internet Piracy

Internet piracy – is it ever okay? And how should legislators deal with it?

Image: http://www.timtim.com/public/images/drawings/large/Pirate_Copy.gif

Internet piracy is a term refer to copyright infringement. According to Wikipedia, copyright infringement is “the use of works protected by copyright law without permission, infringing certain exclusive rights granted to the copyright holder, such as the right to reproduce, distribute, display or perform the protected work, or to make derivative works” (Wikipedia, n.d.).

Based on the above definition, of course, internet piracy is against law and it is not ‘ok’. Although it is clearly against the law, it is still a debatable issue and preview of claims. The pirates will always have a reason to defend themselves and say it is ok as long as they do it not for business purposes. They might claim that they use it to help people access something which ‘cost to buy’ is unaffordable for them, for example, software. My friend ever told me that why we have to buy an expensive software? It updates regularly. Do we have to pay regularly just to have the updated one? The internet has provided something free (read: the pirated software) for us, why should we have to pay for it. For the pirates, it seems that, internet piracy is a common activity and might fine to do it because the illegal contents are available and accessible on the internet.

I have to acknowledge that I was one of the end-user of pirated content because the contents are accessible. When I was in my bachelor degree I used to use illegal software and buy illegal music (CD’s). In Indonesia, at around 2000’s, it was easy to find ‘rental software kiosk or movie kiosk’, which I believe the software CDs or movies were illegal. I could rent the cd’s (software, music or movies) at an affordable price and save on my computer. And, if my friend wanted it, I shared with them. It was a common illegal activity among students. Ironically, when the Indonesian musicians at that time actively did a campaign of ‘stop piracy’, the street-sellers of pirated CD were increasing. We can find them along the edge of the road. As many people buy it, for certain other people will follow it and never feel that they also break the copyright law. We never thought the consequences or the ‘cost to make’ for the software providers, the musicians or anyone who produced the content. However, again the contents are accessible, who will be blamed? The pirates, the seller, the buyer or the government?

The legislators or government always try hard and find a better way to prevent internet piracy. Although, they always amend the law to regulate internet piracy, by considering the ‘cost to buy’ and ‘cost to make’, it is still there and maybe unstoppable. Though the government has blocked the piracy web, the pirates always find a way to do their illegal activity. Should we have to provide an online police to watch all the activities on the internet and acted upon the law accordingly if they found something illegally? But who will do it?

Internet piracy is looks like a never ending story and might unstoppable activity. It is always in a grey area when people can against or support the activity. But, for me this is an individual responsibility and I should start from myself to always seek and use legal content of internet, legal software, pay for the music CD’s or movies and use open source stuff.

Switch Off

Sorry No internet today
Image: Creative Commons No Internet by Marcelo Graciolli is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Switch off was my week 8’s play activities. It was a challenging activity as I realised that I become more dependent on the internet. Mostly my activities on the internet are looking for information, googling things I need to find out, checking emails, read news, weather update, google maps, checking bus timetable and radio streaming or YouTube to entertain myself. Sometimes I jump to social media as to answer my curiousity of what is happening there. I rare do online shopping, but often use my internet banking for paying bills such as phone and rent bills.

Smartphone and laptop are two devices I use to access the internet, but I use smartphone a lot.

So during one switch-off day from the internet (on both devices) I tracked that more than 10 times, I tried to grab my smartphone or just from my Laptop to check emails, read news, or googling to find out information I need. When something encounter on my mind then I said ‘let’s ask Mr. Google’.  But, I just realised, that no internet for this day.

However, after one-day switch-off from the internet,  I found that I have more time to do other valuable things, for example, I can read books, or do my hobbies. I also feel more productive as I can focus on what I do without being interrupted with those ‘internet things’. I watched the morning news on TV to have an updated news and weather news.

Though the internet offer everything for us to make our life easier, take the time off from the internet or do internet fasting can help us to do more things done and more appreciate our life as well as make the real of social connection. I should try not only for one day off from the internet maybe one week


Enroll in a MOOC

I have heard about MOOC for quite a long time but have never tried to enrol in one of the courses. Therefore, I chose to enrol in a MOOC for week 6’s play activities to have experience of MOOC. As there is no Information science or Information studies category, I chose the Information, technology, and design category. There are many courses offered in this category and I found an interesting course titled ‘Social Computing’. This course is offered by the University of California, San Diego under Coursera and commenced on April 18th 2016. Social computing is the third course of eight courses in the interaction design specialisation.

Figure 1

Figure 2

I enrolled in this course and chose ‘Audit only’ which means I can only access the course material. If I want to purchase a specialisation on interaction design, I have to pay for $374 and if I need a completion certificate for this course, I have to pay $52.

After finishing the enrolment, I logged in to my account to access the first week’s material. I can also ask questions or share ideas with other participants through the discussion forum. I can have a look at the assignment instructions as well though I could not submit mine and could not review my peer’s assignment.

Technology has changed the way people learn or education. Nowadays, we can easily gain new skills or knowledge that interests us by joining online courses.

Reflection: How open is ‘open education’?

According to open education consortium, open education is an open sharing of resources, tools and practices in which to enhance the accessibility of education and the effectiveness of the worldwide. With the advancement of the emerging technology tools, people from around the world can be connected, share and collaborate to access existing knowledge or even created a new knowledge for the beneficial of the society (Opensource.com). There no longer is a ‘distance barrier’ to access education, information, and knowledge.

The main concepts of ‘open education’ are open access and sharing of educational resources. It is hoped that the educational resources can be accessed by everyone, for their own benefits.

Based on my experience of using MOOC, yes we can access the online material freely. However, as this is my first experience in using MOOC, I questioned myself whether I still have access to those materials when the course has ended. I hope the material is still accessible so I can recall any time when needed or when I want to share with anyone who needs it, but does not have an access to that source. Further, only general courses are offered so it is quite difficult if we want to find certain courses relate to our specific major.

Speaking of accessibility, there are several questions to be answered. Is it really accessible to everyone? How do people who do not have an internet connection or have lower bandwidth and people with limited digital literacy access MOOC? How do people whose English is not their first language (though there are subtitles available for non-English speakers) using this service?

Overall, ‘open education’ is not yet open. Although, ‘open education’ such as MOOC has provided the opportunity for people to access and share educational resources without worry of the cost and legal mechanism, there are several unanswered questions (like above questions).


Reflection on creating persona

Understanding people’s experience in using technologies, provides an important foundation for design, implementing and evaluation of a wide range of technologies. In this assignment, I have learned how to conduct a user research through creating a persona. The persona I’ve created is based on my experience in using a variety platform of technologies.

The way I am using technologies

I use a variety of technologies for different purposes. Social media is used to help me stay connected with family, friends, professional colleagues as well as build a professional network. I like to use different social media platforms for personal and professional matters. I use Facebook and Instagram for sharing and communicating with my family and friends, whereas LinkedIn, Google+, and WordPress are used for professional purposes. However, I use similar Twitter account for personal and professional purposes as I have used it before to connect with my friends and now I am using it professionally, especially in my study as some courses required using Twitter as one of the communication tools.

Sharing file technologies such as Dropbox and Google drive are necessary in my personal and professional life. I use Dropbox for storing my personal files and share the files with my family or close friends. While, I use Google drive for both personal and professional, but mostly for professional purposes. This is because many of my professional acquaintances have a Google email account. This makes it easier to share files directly via Google drive without setting up a new account.

For online organisation tools and calendars, I use ‘Remember The Milk’ for managing tasks and I use it for both personally and professionally. Because it provides different folder to separate personal and professional tasks. To schedule meetings, or appointments I use Doodle and Google calendar. I only use Doodle for professional purposes while Google Calendar for both personal and professional purposes.

These technologies are accessed through my smartphone and laptop as well as using desktop at working place. In the morning and night I use smartphone or laptop to access personal social media while during the day work hours I use desktop for professional matters.

Eventhough the technologies are beneficial and makes life easier and connecting us anytime, anywhere using any devices, I still feel a little bit annoyed from the technologies. For example, many ads appear on Facebook or some apps provide different features on different devices. For instance, ‘Remember The Milk’, on my smartphone, cannot recall the complete tasks however I can recall the tasks if I use my laptop or desktop. Another example is that I always have to delete or disapprove spam comments on my blogs (WordPress).  Although, sometimes technology makes me frustrated I still love to learn new technologies because it really makes my life easier and I am still connected with people that I can share infirmation with in order to increase my knowledge and professional experiences.

Creating a persona

Usability.gov states that the focus of user research is to understand the needs, motivation and behaviour of users through some methods and one of which is creating a persona.

Persona is “a fictional character constructed to represent the needs of a whole range of real users who have similar behaviour patterns in using technology, products or services” (Garett, 2010, p.50). Although some details of persona data are not real, the information in which is used to create the persona is real (usability.gov). The information is gathered through interviews or focus group discussion.

By creating a persona, the company or organisation can provide technologies, services, or products which are based on the user needs. It means that they create or design something based on the user’s perspective, as a result, increasing the user experience. In other words,  always put yourself in your user’s shoes before designing and implementing technologies.

For this assignment, I created a persona based on my experience using a variety platform of technologies such as social media, file sharing, and online organisation tools and calendars. It is a little bit awkward to interview ourself and actually persona is a fictional character of some users, not a single user. However, this was a good experience for me to learn how to conduct an interview to create a persona. For that purpose, I used basic questions from usability.gov to interview myself and construct a persona based on the interview result.

Based on this experience as well, I am very happy if organisations want to use staff personas in order to improve or provide appropriate service or implement new technology to increase productivity. By creating personas the organisation understand the goals and needs of staff in using technologies. Consequently, the staff can use the provided technologies efficiently and effectively and hinder frustration or bad user experiences. However, the organisation must ensure that the personas they have used really represent all staff’s needs and behaviours otherwise they will not fulfil the needs of their staff. In this assignment I have learnt how to create a persona and I am quite confident that when I have to help my organisation to conduct a user research when they want to provide a new service or technologies for staff.

Technologies are very beneficial and useful to help me dealing with my personal and professional life. Nevertheless, I have to understand sometimes the technologies is working against my expectation.



Garrett, J. J. (2010). The elements of user experience: User-centered design for the    web and beyond (2nd ed.). Berkeley, Calif;London; New Riders.

Image references (in order of appearances on poster)


  1. Creative Commons Facebook logo by MeLY3o is licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0
  2. Creative commons Instagram-logo-005 by harry7mason is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
  3. Creative Commons Dropbox Logo by Martin Lafrance is licensed under CC BY 2.0
  4. Creative Commons Sunrise by Maurizio Fusillo is licensed under CC BY 3.0 US
  5. Creative Commons Night by Vicons Design is licensed under CC BY 3.0 US


  1. Creative Commons linkedin-logo by Kyle MacDonald is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
  2. Creative Commons New Google Plus Logo by AJ Cann is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
  3. Creative Commons wordpress logo by AJ Cann is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0
  4. Doodle image
  5. Creative Commons Midday by Maurizio Fusillo is licensed under CC BY 3.0 US
  6. Creative Commons sunset by Maurizio Fusillo is licensed under CC BY 3.0 US


Personal & Professional

  1. Creative Commons twitter-bird-blue-on-white by Prachatal is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  2. Creative Commons calendar-logo by Jope is licensed under CC BY-ND 2.0
  3. Creative Commons Logo_of_Google_Drive by harry7mason is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0
  4. Creative Commons RTM by Assess is licensed under CC BY 2.0


  1. Creative Commons Smartphone by Aaron K.Kim is licensed under CC BY 3.0 US
  2. Creative Commons Laptop by Dillon Arloff is licensed under CC BY 3.0 US
  3. Creative Commons Desktop Computer by Creative Stall is licensed under CC BY 3.0 US


Creative Commons and Attribution

Hi everyone,

As Kathleen mentioned on her post yesterday that some of us may worry about using non-creative commons (CC) images. Therefore, I would like to share material about how to find the CC images and how to attribute the images. This material is taken from my previous course (IFN611 Information Retrieval) on Blackboard which is provided by Elham Abdi (Course coordinator of IFN611). Hope it is not too late and will be beneficial.

What is Creative Commons licensing?

Creative Commons licenses allow content producers to share their work with others. The licenses provide a standardised way for content owners to indicate the conditions under which people may reuse or redistribute their content without infringing copyright. The licences allow users to reuse, remix and share the content legally.

Where to find Creative Commons licensed material

CC Search [opens in new window] is an aggregated search of common sources of Creative Commons licensed materials.

You can also just try a Google search for something like ‘how to find creative commons licensed images’ (obvious but effective!).

Sites our teaching staff use include:

What is attribution?

Attribution acknowledges the creator or copyright holder of a work that you are reproducing or redistributing as a whole.

For example, if you want to add someone else’s image (which is a whole work in itself) to your assignment, you must make sure you have appropriate permission and attribute it correctly.

Appropriate permission may be:

  • the explicit permission of the copyright holder
  • a Creative Commons (CC) licence that allows reuse.

Why do you need to attribute works you reproduce? 

Attributing other people’s work correctly is important because it:

  • gives appropriate credit to the people whose work you are reproducing
  • maintains academic integrity by honestly representing your work.

If you don’t have appropriate permission to reproduce a work or if you don’t attribute it correctly, you may infringe copyright, which may have legal consequences.

How to attribute Creative Commons licensed material

The CC Wiki provides advice and examples of best practices for Creative Commons attribution [opens in new window].






My experience of using self-tracking apps

I’ve never used self-tracking apps before I don’t know why but I just thought that I don’t need that kind of app. However, after three days quantifying myself with Noom Walk and Aqualert, I just realized that the self-tracking apps can be a useful health-awareness tool for me.

Noom Walk the electronic pedometer and Aqualert for watching drinking

I am not a sport person but I love to run or walk in order to keep active though not too much. In addition, my friend who is conducting research about diabetes recommends me to use pedometer or app to measure our steps as it is beneficial to be more active and prevent us from some diseases such as diabetes and obesity. That’s why I chose Noom Walk app to help me in measuring my steps to check how active I am. However, this app did not tell me how many steps are the healthy standard. Therefore, I was looking for an article and I found that I am included in the sedentary lifestyle category which means I am an inactive person. Of course, I have to achieve the standard requirements to have a good impact on my health. Therefore, after using it for three days, I put my goal at 5000 steps every day for this month and hope I can increase gradually to reach 10,000 steps per day. It is not easy but it is possible as I don’t have to walk around the park but I can find another way to keep walking such as using the stairs rather than take the lift. I don’t want to push myself too much to reach 10,000 steps each day as I know I am not walking too much. Additionally, if I don’t achieve my goal (just in case I walk fewer than 5000 steps) I also do not want to be stressed or feel a burden with that result. For me, this app is an awareness health tool but, of course, I must be realistic with the data without ignoring the standard required.

Aqualert was chosen as I wanted to answer my curiosity of my drinking habit. After using Aqualert for three days, I found out that my daily drink habit was quite bad. I know I used to drink water as much as possible but I used to drink when I already feel thirsty or hydrated and the amount of water less than required on the app. I have checked with literature as well and the suggestion from app 1.5 litter is appropriate for me as a sedentary people. From now on my goal is at least to drink 1.5 to 2 litres water each day. Of course, if the weather is quite hot then I have drink more.

Smartphone dependency and apps literate

Apart from the usefulness, this app will really make me much more dependent on my smartphone. I have to always bring my smartphone everywhere as Noom Walk will count my steps if it detects a movement of my body, otherwise, it will not count it and I never reach my goal. On 25th of March I forgot to have my smartphone with me when I did some walks, consequently the result was very low that is only 421 steps. Similarly, I have to always click plus sign on Aqualert after drinking water, if not the app won’t count though you already reach the goal of drinking 1.5 litre of water thus my result was average on 26th of March.

Moreover, having different apps with different functions is quite frustrating as I always check one by one and increase my usage time of smartphone. Therefore, I am thinking to download only one app which can measure everything. However, I must be an ‘app literate’ user by using it wisely and be aware that the apps may have some limitations as the health apps are still a debatable issue. I have to ensure that I can read and understand the information from the apps history result as my understanding will impact on how it influences my health or maybe I should ask my doctor.

Overall, one simple question encounter my mind, how the app providers ensure that their apps are applicable and understandable for people in all ages and people who have medical problems? Hope I’m not over thinking.